Terms Implied by Common Law Abroad

Terms Implied by Common Law

  • Employers’ duties
    • To pay employees
      • Even if employer has no work for employee to do. ( visit Taxi in Manchester ) for more information. This happened to many cab companies across the U.K.
    • To provide work
      • NB this only applies if the employee is to develop their skills OR
      • Their reputation OR
      • If they are earning commission

Otherwise, there is no duty.


    • To indemnify
      • Any reasonable expenses incurred in their job


    • To take reasonable care of the employees’ personal safety (not their property)
      • By providing;
        • Adequate equipment
        • Safe premises
        • Safe system of work
        • Competent work colleagues


    • To take reasonable care in giving references
      • NB there is no duty to give a reference
      • If one is given, it must be accurate and not misleading.
      • It must be ‘true, accurate and fair’-Bartholomew v London Borough of Hackney [1999].


  • The duty of Trust and Confidence

This is owed by both employer and employee

The duty was first proposed in Courtaulds Northern Textiles Ltd v Andrew (1979) (EAT) and formalised in Malik v BCCI (1997) (HofL). However since then the scope of the duty has increased and there is now a state of uncertainty about its limits.


To establish whether a breach has occurred, a 2-part test was devised.

          1. Did the individual conduct themselves in a manner calculated to destroy or seriously damage the relationship of trust and confidence between the parties? If the answer is “Yes” then;
          2. Did the individual act in this way due to some reasonable cause?


  • Employees’ duties
    • To follow the employer’s reasonable instructions
    • To carry out duties personally and not delegate unless authorised
    • Not to make a secret profit
    • To exercise reasonable care and skill in the performance of their duties
    • To indemnify the employer
      • For losses caused by the employee’s negligence
    • To carry out their duties in a safe manner
      • To protect the employer’s property
      • To protect fellow employees.

A trip to the Middle East

The middle east is often seen as a dangerous region, quite exotic or mysterious. Depending on your perspective. It attracts a big number of tourists, but they often don’t know what country to visit, I’m here to tell you why Lebanon (Often named “Switzerland of the middle east”)  is the best country for tourism in the Middle East. Sponsored by Abogados de Familia

First of all, tourists interested in the middle east usually care about learning about the culture the most.  In lebanon  you will get to know about so many cultures. Because of the huge number of refugees you will get to learn about Palestinian, Armenian, and Syrian cultures. But of course about the interesting Lebanese one. You will feel like you’re visiting different countries, since regions are different depending on the religion majority. Christian regions are the cleanest and are usually preferred by tourists. Druze territories are also loved. A lot of Sunni and shia regions  lack can be pretty messy but you will still get a lot of nice places to discover. And don’t worry about communication, Lebanese are extremely friendly and known for their hospitality. Bonus point, they often speak 3 languages or more, including English.  

4 “THINGS” you will adore in Lebanon: Food, nature, Parties, and People( Especially women). Could you ask for more?  

When it comes to food, Lebanese cuisine is impeccable and will steal your heart! Not exaggerating but tourists adore Lebanese gastronomy; Tabouleh, Hommos, Chich Barack, Fatouche, Machewe W el chabeb (Also a Lebanese joke), Mankouche ( Recommended for breakfast) and the list goes on. In  Lebanon you will never have an empty tummy, nor a half filled one.  

Lebanese food is not the only amazing thing, nature is breathtaking, and often feels “New” for  tourists. Zaarour, Chekka, Douma, Jezzine, Bsharri, Zahle, Faraya, Tannourine, Rachaya, Baskinta, Nahr Ibrahim, Tyre, Deir el qamar, Jounieh, chouf, Jbeil, Batroun and the list is still very long. It’s a small country but so many marvelous regions, and since its not a big country, discovering them is not hard. Moreover, activities of all kind are available, hiking, scuba diving, boating, skiing(Winter only), Paragliding etc. Visit the cool towns too, Downtown for a nice shopping trip and Beirut for the very interesting museum. And don’t miss Grotto Jeita, it’s literally wonderful! So many places to discover, unfortunately the list is missing a lot of BEAUTIFUL places to visit. 

On the other hand, wild parties are made in Lebanon, nightlife is just Amazing, most parties don’t start before 11pm and end up with a “Knefe” as breakfast. Party in Beirut, Gemmayzeh or Jounieh and make your nights the most memorable of your life! So many festivals will bump into you if you come during summer vacation and they are full of good vibes! Specially in Lebanese villages.  

Lebanese, as mentioned previously, are very friendly and compared to other people in middle eastern countries, they are open-minded. In Islamic regions,” hijab” and more conservative principles may appear, but in Christian regions they are way more “open”, girls wear crop tops and revealing clothes without it being a big deal. Nature in Lebanon is not the only one blessed, Lebanese women are stunning (They often get plastic surgery) and very feminine (Most of them) specially when you compare them to Americans.  PS: Lebanese Christians are not arabs, but Phoenicians . (Not everyone in Lebanon agrees.) 

I think you’re ready to visit Baalbek, the Lebanese souks, the amazing beaches,  Bekaa valley, dance with awesome human beings and eat Shawarma while listening to Wael Kfoury’s songs! Aren’t you?


Festivals in Germany

Do you want good cheap food? Awesome music? Fun costumes? Good vibes? And a day to make nice memories? If your answer was yes, German festivals are what you need. Every year, Germany holds more than 10,000 festivals, you should at least experience one before you die. Here is a list of the most famous festivals in germany:  Check out pictures from Double Glazing Glasgow

1- Oktoberfest: If someone Should go there, its Homer Simpson, it’s a BEER paradise, and if you’re also a beer lover, don’t think twice about it. Held in Munich the festival will remain in your memory for a very long time, you will never forget the fun you will get to experiment there. A very sage philosopher once said “Without beer, life would be a mistake”. Its something you will definitely put in mind, especially if you spend some time with some good friends in the Oktoberfest. PS: You will see  a lof men wearing leiderhosen. Something I wouldn’t miss. 

2- Leipzig Book Fair: There is no friend as loyal as a book, if you agree we can say you’re a books lover, and that’s why the The Frankfurt Bookfair was made for you. Journalist, writer, reader or just someone into books will fall in love with it. It’s the largest literature festival in Europe with a massive number of BOOKS. Its heaven, isn’t it? The world belongs to those who read! 

3- Guess what’s the most magical time of the year? Yes you got it right. Lets meet under the mistletoe in Berlin, where more than 50 Christmas festivals are held. Tons of Christmas decorated stands, spiced wine and gingerbread houses! TEES THE SEASON… 

Huge street parades, good ambiance and a very long list of amazing festivals are waiting for you! Get yourself a ticket and enjoy German festivals! 


Algeria, a beautiful risk

Sponsored by notary public in London

The country not being safe to travel and certain regions being off limits is a common fact, but you don’t need to scratch it off the list, a lot of tourists are having more than fun in Algeria, warm welcomes and a good adventure are waiting for you in the largest country in the continent of Africa. 

A tour in the capital “Algiers” never  fails to amaze tourists. Founded by the Ottomans, the architecture is always noticed. It includes Ketchaoua mosque, mosque el Djedid and mosque El Kébir. You shouldn’t miss  Notre Dame d’Afrique, a  splendid basilica and an  example of the Neo-Byzantine style that was happening in French Algeria at the time. You will know more about the interesting history of Algeria if you hire a private guide.  

Want to feel in a sci-fi movie? the Atakor Plateau is where you should go. The landscapes are marvelous, you wont be disappointed. Transportation may be diffuclt but difficulties were made to be faced! 

Oran is a city you should visit too, especially if you like historical buildings, and want to try traditional Algerian cuisine. Who can say no to “Couscous”? Nobody! You will love Algerian couscous, but also Chakchouka, Hariri and more Algerian dishes.  

On the other hand, feeling in a fantasy movie in Algeria is also possible, Constantine is a splendid, natural spot for tourists, you will adore the magical landscapes and you will fall under the spell of the breathtaking nature! 

Setif is another city you should visit, the Romans ruins will amaze you. Timgad should also be on the list.  

To end your tour well, a city that  has been settled by the Vandals, Byzantines, Moroccans and Ottoman Turks should not be missed. Bejaia is definitely worth it.  

So, are you on your way or not yet?

Why is Argentina the right country for adventure seekers?

Why is Argentina  the right country for adventure seekers? 

When you know you have nothing to lose and a world to see, you know you’re an adventurer: a curious soul with a brave heart.  And since our world is filled with beautiful destinations, choosing one can be complicated, that’s why I’m here to guide you: Argentina could easily be the place your  risk-taker  spirit needs. 

Ps: Take your significant one with you, Argentina has romantic views and landscapes that would make you feel in “ The Notebook” . 

Let the virtual tour begin. 

 You probably should start with the capital, Buenos Aires. The museums and indoor places are breathtaking, but if you want to unleash your wild side, “Caballos A la Par” is the right place. Get on your horse and seize the moment. Bonus point; it is only a 30 minute trip outside of the capital.  

If you want more horse-related adventure “Abierto Argentino De Polo” is a prestigious event: a polo tournament, one of the oldest in the world. You can also find food stands (Sandwiches, ice-cream etc.)  

Moreover, if you want to take a short break and feel in a fairytale, Rosedal is the romantic garden, where you can admire the fountains, the nature and of course the roses.  

Now it’s time to be wilder,  Iguazu Falls, should be on your bucket list no matter what, and if you go to Argentina, you are not supposed to miss it. The falls are magical, something to stick to your memory forever, please and spoil your eyes and go check it. You can book a private tour online to make the experience more organized and easier to plan. 

After the adrenaline rush, time to try chocolate in Bariloche, then you can go back on the adrenaline rollercoaster and try hiking or skiing there. And why not try kitesurfing  on lago Nahuel Huapi? You can take lessons.  Adventures there are not limited: Horseback tours, parapenting, rock climbing, mountain biking,  kayaking… You name it. 

 Last but not least, Ushuaia, the young paradisiacal city geographically at the end of the world, can fill your heart with  its good vibes,  and colorful  structures. Rent a bike, and discover it with your own beautiful eyes! Boats of all shapes are also available.  

 You probably can confirm now that Argentina is such an exciting place made for adventures, and wild spirits. Are you still here? Or already on a plane?